||We are indebted to many for providing us incentive and support during the time that we were writing this manuscript. We dedicate this book to our families, including Maria, Maria Elena, Rita, Louie, and our parents; their understanding and support during the many months of writing was essential.
We are also grateful to Dr. Clyde С Clements, Jr., Dean of Community Education at Santa Fe Community College, for providing us the opportunity to organize a class for test preparation and supporting us in our quest to write this book. Special thanks are due Dr. Patricia Byrd, Assistant Director of the University of Florida's English Language Institute, for providing us classroom space, equipment, students, publicity, and encouragement. We wish to thank Dr. Manuel Lopez Figuera, Maria Lopez de Pyle, Dr. Felipe Sierra, Dr. Jose Zaglul, and Paul F. Schmidt for writing materials for the practice tests.
We also wish to thank Jerry Bobrow ofBobrow Test Preparation Services for recommending our book and Michele Spence of Cliffs Notes, Inc., for her invaluable assistance in editing.
We are indebted to our students, who acted as our critics while we were preparing the materials.
We have revised this book several times since it was first written. The changes in this edition are extensive to parallel the 1995 changes to the TOEFL. We are now indebted to even more people who provided reading and listening passages or reviewed materials for us. They include Margarita Bardgett, Elizabeth Eschbach, Joe Romero, Sherry Keyes, Harry Gebert, and Dr. Dana Griffin, III. Michael Pyle is especially thankful for all the help his wife Maria provided in suggesting materials and typing. In addition to the superb editing work of Michele Spence, the authors were very fortunate to be provided the editing expertise ofLinnea Fredrickson.
Neither the authors nor Cliffs Notes, Inc., is affiliated with Educational Testing Service or involved in the development or administration of the TOEFL. Neither the directions nor any sample questions were provided or approved by Educational Testing Service.